도시 개발, 도시 재개발, 현대미술, 부르디외, 인정 투쟁, 예술상/ urban development, art policy, flaneur, ethnographer, site-specific art, esthetique relationnelle, socially engaged arts, avant-garde art
본 연구는, 특정한 사회적 이슈 -본 논문에서는 ‘도시 개발 문제’-를 예술작업의 소재로 삼는 방식으로 일정한 사회참여(비판)적 태도를 보였던 예술가들이 ‘제도’-국가정책과 미술제도-와 ‘자본’-상징적 자본과 경제 자본-을 만났을 때 벌어지는 현상들을 포착하고, 그 가능성과 한계점을 분석하고 있다. 연구자는 사회참여적 예술작업을 하는 행위자들이 표면적으로 드러나는 언술 외에도 드러나지 않은 전략을 갖고 있다는가정 하에, 이를 증명하는 방법으로 예술사회학의 입장에서 ‘예술작업의 생산 조건’과‘예술계의 인정의 심급’이라는 두 핵심적 요소에 주목하였다. 본 논문에서는 2000년대이후 서울의 (재)개발 지역을 다룬 예술작업을 연구 대상으로 설정한 후, 도시 개발문제를 다룬 현대미술의 특성과 전략을 분석하고, 이들 예술작업이 제도권 미술계의인정을 받는 과정을 탐색하였다. \r\n\r\n분석을 위해 먼저, 동시대 미술에서 나타나는 도시 담론의 양상을 살펴보았다. 현대미술에서 도시 관련 담론은 전 세계적 이슈로 작동하고 있으며, 그것이 예술작업과 전시로 활발하게 표출되고 있다. 이러한 현상은 우리나라에도 영향을 미치며 이어지는 데, 한국 현대미술에서는 다양한 도시 담론 중 특히 ‘개발 담론’에 주목하는 모습을 발견할 수 있었다. 한국 현대미술에서 도시 개발 문제를 적극적으로 예술작업의소재로 다루는 것은 1980년대 무렵부터 나타나기 시작하는 데, 이는 당시 한국의 서울을 중심으로 한 도시 개발 정책과 관련이 있었다. 2000년대 이전의 예술작업들에서는 서울의 도시 개발 문제를 소재로 삼는 경우 예술가들은, 달동네 풍경이나 개발 이후의 풍경을 재현하는 방식으로 그들의 비판적 태도를 표현하였다. 그런데, 2000년대 이후에는 국가의 도시 개발 정책의 일부로 예술 정책을 흡수하면서, 도시 개발 문제를 소재로 삼는 예술가들의 미학적 실천이 이전과는 다른 양상으로 작업에 드러나는 것이 포착되었다.
This study analyzes the process of which how socially engaged arts for urban development problems, particularly for Seoul in Korea, accept recognition in the field of art. Investigation about characteristics of the artworks since 2000s and strategies of the artists who have created them confirms that the ‘socially engaged and critical attitude,’ which is the power of creativity for the artworks, becomes a symbolic capital when it works together with national policies and systems of art in the highly capitalized modern society. In order to research the characteristics and strategies of the arLworks, the published text about such artworks and artists between 2001 and 20II are collected, such as criticisms, exhibition catalogs, artist's notes, and media interviews. Qualitative researches are performed for results of classification and analyses of the texts in the categories of object, method, motive, and exhibition space for the artworks. Then, discussions for field of art and symbolic struggle, developed in sociology of art after Pierre Bourdieu, Te used to interpret the research results.\r\nIn the first research question for characteristics of the artworks, most of the regions used as the 'object' in the artworks after 2000s cor:relate, in space and time, with the disbicts focused by (re)development policies of Seoul. Since 2000s, the role of the artist in the artworks has changed from spectators to participants, and it is explained by the types of fldneur and ethnographer, respectively. During the shifting of role, it is observed that backward parts of the urban tended to be appropriated for artistic spaces by the active artists.\r\nSecond, strategies of the artists are explored. The practice of recordings for spaces which will be disappeared gives validity to the representation of re-developing districts in cities. But, at the same time, the representation has been cnticized because it otherings object. To avoid such criticisms, many of the arfists, especially in the type of flAneur, have consfucted discourse in several ways of showing personal affinity with their objects (spaces). The artists in the type of ethnographer have established their legitimacy by taking a position of the inheritors of 'Minjungilrt' in 1980s, or by tryine to make a direct relationship with local residents of the area. Particularly, the increase of 'site-specific, arts is observed in art contests run by government support. According to the examination of cases on Art public competition since 2000, it could be confirmed that the public competitions to 'place-specific project work' are increased. This indicates that the national support has worked inversely as a motif to limit the autonomy of arlist, and in return, that projects in which artists have been involved are stopped accordingly when the national supporf have been stopped. This is a mechanism in which the artist's work became to be a transient project and also it justifies that the association with the reproduction area have been cut. Immaterial artworks outside of the space of system construct a series of form which can be recognized in the art system by transforming the final product to be an object such as the installation work and then by setting archive, recording the real situation what have happened. In sampling, it could be confirmed that the stroller-typed artwork with mobility have been exhibited largely in commercial galleries, whereas the ethnographic typed arlwork in the alternative spaces or the national museum. The reason why the artworks supported from the nation are mainly exhibited in the space of system with the material forms is because that the works are made using tax from the nation -'the exhibition as Evidences.'\r\nFinally, the process accepting recognition is investigated by the researches for exhibition spaces and afi awards(contests). Considering limited number of exhibition spaces and awards in Korea, the arlworks for development of the urban appear to win art awards and have opportunities to exhibit their artworks, frequently. Thus, it is suggested that such object is effective to obtain a symbolic position in field of art. Once the arlists obtained the symbolic position, it was more easier to win another award or to exhibit in different space where the symbolic capital is accumulated. Exhibition spaces and awards for artworks, thus, played an important role in terms of 'gate-keeper' of the field of art. In other words, the process has promoted the production of artworks with similar object. In this study, artists who recogruzed the urban development problem to specific social issue are regarded as a performer who show the structural changes in the latest trend of Korean fine art field since 2000, and in terms of the sociology of art, such socio-participatory artwork can be recognized as an excellent subject both in the art world as well as outside of the art world. Furtherrnore, it can be regarded as a symptomatic instance showing that the recognition system of art is depending on the political and economical power at the same time the autonomy of art is endangered by them. Such phenomenon is related to some dilemma of avant-garde art and sosio-participatory alternative activities since 20 century, which happened commonly not only in the fine art world but also in the capitalistic society. The purpose and justification for such practices are somehow different, however, this study has significance as a case study handling these process in earnest.