친밀성, 신자유주의, 관계 맺기,연애,썸, 리얼리티,패널,재현,미디어
이연구는2010년대중후반이후한국예능프로그램에서연애를관찰하고이에대해논의하는 연애관찰토크쇼의등장에대해주목한다.당시한국사회는2010년대초반‘관계를포기한세대’라 는담론이형성된이후연애와결혼이선택적인개념으로제시되며1인가구,비혼,비연애와관련 된논의가활발하게이루어지고있는시기였다.신자유주의체제이후의경제위기및경쟁과자기 계발이강조된이후,오늘날우리사회속친밀성의구조변동이나타났다.기존의관습을거부하고 선택적개념으로서의연애와결혼을인식이사회전반에자리하게된것이다.이와같은사회적담 론이형성되는방향과대조적으로미디어에는연애를소재로한프로그램이증가해왔다.또한,이와 같은‘연애’를다룬프로그램및콘텐츠는텔레비전방송만이아닌SNS,유튜브등을통해미디어의 영역에서함께나타났다.
이에연구자는이연구를통해오늘날미디어가‘연애’를재현하고논의하는과정을분석함으로써 그속에내포된의미를파악하고자하였다.이렇게이연구는한국사회에서관계맺기에대한재정 의가이루어지는시점에이와같이연애관찰토크쇼가증가함에주목하여이루어지게되었다.따라 서이론적논의를통해신자유주의체제의본격화로인해형성된한국사회친밀성의구조변동에 대해살펴보았다.이와함께‘관찰토크쇼’의등장배경을밝히고자한국리얼리티프로그램의변화와 특징을다루고,‘연애’를다룬리얼리티프로그램에대한선행연구를살펴보았다. 이론적논의를통 해살펴본‘관찰토크쇼는리얼리티프로그램의사실성논쟁이후등장한연출자의개입이최소화된 형식인관찰예능이등장했다.그러나단조로움을상쇄할필요성이제기됨에따라관찰자적,매개자 적,조언자적역할을하는패널의개입을통해관찰토크쇼가자리잡게되었다고볼수있다. 연애관찰토크쇼를살펴보기위한구체적인연구대상은2010년대후반을기준으로지속성과화 제성을기준으로네편의프로그램을선정했다. 연구대상을통해썸, 연애, 그리고이탈의과정을 분석하는동시에패널및제작진의개입방식에대한차이를볼수록구체화하였다.각각호감의신 호를읽어내는<하트시그널2>과그리고사랑혹은상금을획득하기위해모인<러브캐처2>는 제작진이패널에게문제를제공하며참여적으로이끌었다.<연애의맛2>는오랫동안하지못했던 연애를다시시작하고자하는프로그램으로출연자에게연애에대한구체적인조언및방법을제시 하였다.끝으로사연을토해연애갈등과이별에패널이함께고민하는<연애의참견2>는출연자 가직접패널에게‘고민해결’을요구함에따라패널의조언이더욱적극적으로이루어진다는특징 이있다.
이를바탕으로분석을통해‘연애관찰토크쇼’의구조적인성격과내용적인성격을각각밝혔다. 연애관찰토크쇼중에서가장특징적이라고볼수있는패널은관찰자이자매개자,그리고조언자가 되었다.패널은시선을통해주목을이끌어냄으로써관찰자역할을했으며,시청자와유대감을형성 하며,시청자를프로그램에서거리두기와밀착을유도하는매개자역할을했다.그리고이를바탕 으로패널은조언자의역할을수행하였다.조언자로서패널중에는전문가적발화를하는인물들이 등장하였으나패널의조언은전문가와같은조언이아닌유사사회적관계를통해형성된친밀감을 기반으로이루어졌다.이렇게패널이연애관찰토크쇼에서관찰과조언을하지만여기에는제작진의 카메라시선,제작진이제시하는문제등에따라관찰자의시선과조언이이루어지고있었다.이에 따라제작진은패널과출연자가자유롭게언행함에있어구조적인틀을제시하며제약을가하였다. 이와같은구조속에서이루어지는연애관찰토크쇼속연애는주로‘썸’을다루고있다. 이때의 썸은유동적이고비정형적으로‘관계’보다‘연결’의성격이더가까웠다.따라서만남의자유가이루 어지지만,출연자,패널,그리고제작진에의해썸이연애로이어지는것을정상적인과정으로보고 있음을알수있었다.나아가연애대상자의연령대에따라썸-결혼으로이어지기도하며성별역할 분담이나누어져좋은배우자상이그려졌다.이에따라사회적으로형성되고있는보편혼(婚)관념 의해체및선택적개념으로서의친밀성의개념이반영되지못하고있다.즉연애관찰토크쇼는사 회에서형성되는논의와는별도로기존의연애리얼리티프로그램의관습을답습하고있었다. 다음으로미디어권력은오늘날의바람직한연애의상은이성애중심의연애각본에따라연애의 상품화를바탕에둔낭만적유토피아로재현되고있었다. 이는오늘날논의되는선택적연애와결 혼,성별에따라굳어진역할허물기를실현하고자하는탈연애,그리고이성애중심이아닌동성애 및양성애등의사회적담론을역행한다고볼수있다.특히국내연애관찰토크쇼및연애리얼리 티프로그램은남성과여성이같은성비로출연해이성애적감정교류를나누는것은어떠한언급도 없이당연시되는제작진의연애규범이라고볼수있다.
이렇게미디어를통해생성되는연애규범은개인의성향및특성을인정하지않고있으며,일반 화된연애상식으로연애를학습화및스펙화로이끌고있다고볼수있다.이를바탕으로개개인은 연애를위해자신의가치관및성향을개선해나가는자아프로젝트를실행해야하는것으로그려지 고있다.이는미디어권력이행사하는방향으로규범화가이루어지는것이며,사회적으로형성되는 담론에는들어맞지못하는것이라고할수있다.즉연애관찰토크쇼를통해만들어지는연애규범 은우리사회를대표하는것이아니라특정한방향으로이끌어가고있음을상기해야한다.
The study focuses on dating reality shows and korean variety shows from the mid to late 2010s to observe and discuss dating phenomenon. Ever since the "Generation that gave up relationship" was formed in the early 2010s, Korean society has been discussing single-person households, choosing not to be in a relationship, and non-marriage-related issues. And love and marriage started to be considered as optional. As the economic crisis became serious in Korea, competition intensified and self-improvement fever erupted in society. After Neoliberalism, the change in the structure of intimacy was taking place throughout society. Contrary to the way social discourse was formed, there has been a growing trend in the media in terms of Korean dating reality shows.. Therefore, the study was conducted at a time when the another definition for of relationship in Korean society was created with the increasing number of dating reality talk shows.
Through theoretical discussions, this study examines the structural changes in intimacy through the full-scale development of Neoliberalism and Korea's (non-relationship) discourse that was formed afterwards. In addition, the research sought to enhance understanding of the subsequent observation talk shows by pointing out changes in reality programs until a format called observational talk show emerged. Based on this, the researcher analyzed the structural analysis of the love observation talk show and analyzed it first by dividing it into the role of observers, intermediaries, and advisers on the panel to see how they were coaching the relationship. In addition, the researcher analyzed how the production team was designing the love observation talk show by looking at what guidelines the production team provided for the on-site romance and studio talk, and later, through a detailed analysis, I wanted to reveal how the love observation talk show today is recreated and what it implies.
The panel, one of the most distinctive of the dating reality shows, served as a observer by drawing attention through physical eyes, forming a bond with viewers. And acting as a medium to guide viewers to distance themselves. Based on this, the panel acted as an advisor. At this time, the advisor appeared not as a real expert, but as a professional firebrand, and the advice was based on the closeness formed through similar social relationships, not like the distant expert. If the panel played an important role visibly through advice on the dating reality show, the production team imposed restrictions by presenting a structural framework for the panel and its cast’s free speech.
While the dating reality show mainly deals with "thumbs," it is seen as a normal step by romantic participants, panelists, and producers, leading to a "thumb-marriage" depending on the age of the romantic partner. At the same time, the division of gender roles and the portrayal of a good spouse do not reflect the socially formed concept of universal marriage and love and marriage as an optional concept. In other words, a dating reality show is a follow-up to the conventional practice of dating reality programs, apart from discussions that are formed in society.
Next, media power presents an award for today’s desirable love affair, which is portrayed as a romantic utopia based on the value of a commercialized love affair, and this is followed by a love scenario. This runs countertosocial discourse such as non-marriage, which is not choosing a marriage that is being discussed today, and non-love, which means a life without a relationship, a breakaway from the gender-obsessed role, and homosexuality and bisexuality, not heterosexuality. In particular, a domestic dating observation talk show and dating reality show can be seen as the dating norm of the production team, where men and women appear in the same sex ratio and share heterosexual emotional exchanges without any mention.
This media-generated love code does not recognize individual tendencies and characteristics, and it is perceived as common sense to lead romance to learning and speculating. Based on this, individuals are portrayed as having to carry out self-projects that improve their values and tendencies for dating. This is a normative approach to media power and does not fit the social discourse. In other words, they should be reminded that the love rules created through the dating reality show are not representative of our society, but are leading in a particular direction.